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This Day in History is DUE’s daily dose of trivia for all the history buffs out there. So sit back and take a ride of all the fascinating things that happened on 23rd March!

People are trapped in history and history is trapped in people, and hence, every day has been a significant one in the foibles of history. Now, let’s take a tour of “This Day in History – 23rd March”.

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1153 Treaty of Constance

On this day in 1153, The First Treaty of Constance was signed between Emperor Frederick I and Pope Eugene III. By the terms of the treaty, the Emperor was to prevent any action by Manuel I Komnenos to re-establish the Byzantine Empire on Italian soil and to assist the pope against his enemies in revolt in Rome. In 1155, as part of the agreement securing his imperial coronation, Frederick reaffirmed the terms of Constance for Pope Adrian IV. The Second Treaty of Constance made peace between the Emperor and the Lombard League in 1183.

1857 Elisha Otis installs his 1st elevator at 488 Broadway in New York City

On March 23, 1857, the first Otis commercial passenger elevator, installed at 488 Broadway in New York City, created new levels of safety — and spurred architects and engineers to push future designs ever upward. Elevators have now become the necessities of any supermarket along with premium products and amenities like air-conditioner and safety equipment.

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1919 Mussolini found the Fascist Party

Benito Mussolini, an Italian World War I veteran and publisher of Socialist newspapers, broke with the Italian Socialists and establishes the nationalist Fasci di Combattimento, named after the Italian peasant revolutionaries, or “Fighting Bands,” from the 19th century. Commonly known as the Fascist Party, Mussolini’s new right-wing organization advocated Italian nationalism, had black shirts for uniforms, and launched a program of terrorism and intimidation against its leftist opponents.

Benito Mussolini
image source: britannica

1933: Death anniversary of Indian revolutionaries Sardar Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru

In 1933, Indian Freedom Fighters, Sardar Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged by the British. Every year March 23 is celebrated as ‘Shaheed Diwas‘ or Martyrs’ Day in India. This year is the 90th death anniversary of the legendary young revolutionaries.

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Martyr's Day
From left: Shivaram Rajguru, Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev Thapar

1933 Enabling Act was passed

On this day, the Enabling Act was passed by the German Reichstag (Diet) in 1933 that enabled Adolf Hitler to assume dictatorial powers. Deputies from the Nazi Party, the German National People’s Party, and the Centre Party voted in favour of the act, which “enabled” Hitler’s government to issue decrees independently of the Reichstag and the presidency. It gave Hitler a base from which to carry out the first steps of his National Socialist revolution.

Enabling Act
image source: wikipedia
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